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Ali Reza Khosravi is a Professor in the field of Medical and Veterinary Mycology at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. He has worked at University of Tehran since 1985. He graduated from the University of Tehran with DVM and obtained his MPH and Ph.D. in Medical Mycology at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences. He participated in different international workshop regarding the Immunology of Fungal Diseases and also natural immune modulator agents and their mechanisms. He has participated, as an active researcher, in International Congress and Workshop and has bilateral collaboration with some Research Center and Department in other countries. He has been selected as top professor and research man in Iran. He is responsible for research projects funded by Research council of University of Tehran and is corresponding author more than 300 scientific papers and supervised 28 Ph.D theses.


1- DVM degree, 1985, University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tehran, Iran
Thesis: Evaluation of the role of Aspergillus species as etiology of fish skin ulcer,
Advisor: Prof. B.Mokhayer, 1985.
2-MPH degree: 1988, Tehran University of medical sciences School of public health,
Tehran, Iran
3- PhD degree: Medical Mycology, 1992, Tehran University of Medical Sciences School of
Public Health, Tehran, Iran.
Thesis: Dermatophyte antigens and immunity to dermatophytosis
Advisor: Prof. M.Emami and Prof. H. Tadjbakhsh, 1992.
4- Fellowship in Fungal Immunology, university of Sao Paolo, Brazil, July 1992-
August 1993.
5- Post doctorial Fellowship in Fungal Allergy and Immunology, University of
Leeds, Leeds, UK , Jan 1995- September 1995.

Employment and Experiences:
1992 to 1996: Assistant Professor, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
1996 to 2001: Associate Professor, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2001 to present: Professor, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Head of Mycology Research Center, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Member of international society for humans and animal mycology (ISHAM).
Member of Iranian society of immunology.
Member of Iranian society of mycology.




Name: Ali Reza Surname: Khosravi

Birthday: 1960.06.02 Live in: Tehran, Iran

Academic Rank: Professor

Email address:
Tel: Office: +98216117051

University of Tehran

University of Tehran is the oldest modern university located in Tehran, Iran. It is also one of the most prestigious universities in the Middle East. Based on its historical, socio-cultural, and political pedigree, as well as its research and teaching profile, UT has been nicknamed “The mother university of Iran” . It has been ranked as one of the best universities in the Middle East in national and international rankings and among the top universities in the world. It is also the premier knowledge producing institute among all OIC countries. The university offers 111 bachelor’s degree programs, 177 master’s degree programs, and 156 Ph.D. programs



BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a secondary toxic metabolite produced by some Aspergillus species, particularly Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) and A. parasiticus that contaminate feedstuffs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination of the concentrate and corn silage samples to toxigenic fungi and aflatoxin B1 in cattle farms of Yazd province in Iran. METHODS: A total of 80 samples of concentrated feeds and 80 samples of silage feeds were collected from cattle breeding farms of 4 cities in Yazd province in winter and spring seasons (40 samples in each season and one sample from each cattle farm). The samples were cultured on mycological media in order to isolate and determine the amount of the toxigenic fungi. Concurrently, the content of AFB1 was measured in feedstuff samples using ELISA technique. RESULTS: The results indicated that the most frequent fungi isolated were Aspergillus spp. (49.3%), Penicillium spp. (23%), Mucor spp. (22.3%) and Fusarium spp. (4.8%) in winter and Aspergillus spp. (46.9%), Penicillium spp. (21.8%), Mucor spp. (28.5%) and Fusarium spp. (2.8%) in spring from all understudy feedstuffs. The mean of AFB1 in feedstuffs was 0.25 and 0.21 µg/kg in winter and spring, respectively. According to statistical analysis of the results, significant differences were observed between the frequency of Aspergillus isolates and other fungal species (p<0.05) and also between toxigenic fungi, such as Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium, with other isolated fungi (p<0.05). Among toxigenic fungi, significant differences were observed between Aspergillus and Penicillium species, Aspergillus and Fusarium species and Penicillium and Fusarium species (p<0.05). Significant relationship was observed between the amount of toxigenic fungi and AFB1 in feedstuffs (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained by this study show that rapid and specific detection of aflatoxigenic fungi is essential to ensure the mycological safety of animal feedstuffs.
In this research, new hybrid epoxy/nanopigment coatings were prepared and their physical and mechanical properties were studied. For this purpose, blue hybrid dye-clay nano-pigments (DCNPs) were synthesized by using the cationic exchange reaction between methylene blue (MB) and an organically modified clay (Cloisite 15A, C15A). Thereafter, blue color epoxy formulations were prepared by the incorporation of DCNPs into an epoxy system. In addition, two common organic and inorganic pigments (namely, C.I. pigment blue 15:2 and C.I. pigment blue 28) were used to prepare two common blue color epoxy resins as reference samples. Finally, the physical and mechanical performances of these coatings were evaluated and compared with each other. Different techniques including CHNS, XRD, TEM, DMTA, QUV accelerated weathering tester and spectrophotometry were used in this study. The results showed that the dispersion and interaction/exfoliation of DCNPs in epoxy matrix were better than those of C15A. Moreover, it was found that the color characteristics and mechanical properties of the epoxy/nanopigment coatings were superior compared to those of reference coatings.
Objective: The aims of this study were to determine the role of live and heat-killed Aspergillus fumigatus conidia in releasing interleukin (IL)-25, IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and to express Toll-like receptor (Tlr)2 and Tlr4 genes. Materials and methods: Murine lung epithelial cells were incubated with live and heat-killed A. fumigatus conidia at 37°C for 6, 24 and 48h. After treatments, ELISA was performed to measure the concentrations of IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP in the supernatants. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed to assess the expression levels of Tlr2 and Tlr4 genes. Results: The concentrations of IL-25 and IL-33 significantly increased after exposure to live and heat-killed conidia for various times when compared with untreated control (P<0.05). The secretion of TSLP at different concentrations of heat-killed conidia was significantly higher than both live conidia and untreated control (P<0.05). qRT-PCR results indicated a up-regulation from 1.08 to 3.60-fold for Tlr2 gene expression and 1.20 to 1.80-fold for Tlr4 gene expression exposed to heat-killed conidia. Conclusion: A. fumigatus has a potential ability to stimulate murine lung epithelial cells to produce IL-25/IL-33/TSLP, as well as to express Tlr2/Tlr4 genes, indicating an important role of lung epithelial cells in innate immune responses to A. fumigatus interaction.
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is a clinically heterogeneous disease. Some immunologic and hormonal abnormalities have been associated with CMC. The factors that predispose host to CMC infection could be autosomal or acquisitive. The disease usually occurs in childhood. Here, we reviewed the published literature on chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and a four years old girl is presented with CMC. She had a history of recurrent thrush and otomycosis since the age of one. Candida albicans was detected in skin scraping and biopsy samples. Serum iron was low. TSH hormone level was high and T4 level was low. Giardia cysts were found in stool sample. Mucocutaneous and nail manifestations of the disease were disappeared after a period of Itraconazole therapy.


Candidiasis is a fungal infection that is often caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans) and in a few cases it is caused by other Candida species. Infection of gastrointestinal tracts including mouth, esophagus and stomach, as well as enteritis and diarrhea are the most common form of the disease in cattle. Clinical findings: In January 2015 reduction in milk production and severe watery diarrhea were observed in a dairy farm located in Varamin city Tehran, Iran. So that 57.1% of cows with high milk production efficiency and 40% of cows with low milk production efficiency were suffering severe watery diarrhea. Laboratory tests: In clinical examination of affected animals vital signs such as number of breaths, heart rate, as well as the quality and number of ruminal movements were quite normal. No unusual signs were seen in CBC pattern of affected animals. In stool samples of affected animals no viruses or bacteria were detected while specimens were positive for yeast contamination. RapID commercial kits were used to identify the genus and species of yeast and C. famata was diagnosed as the cause of diarrhea. Final evaluation: Reports of diarrhea caused by fungal pathogens in animals is very low and Candida species, especially C. albicans and C. glabrata are known as the main causes of fungal diarrhea in animals. This study is the first report about occurrence of C. famata diarrhea in adult cattle. So that C.famata could be considered as one of the potential causes of diarrhea in cattle.
The major objective of this study was to synthesis a hybrid dye-clay nano-pigment (DCNP) through cationic exchange reaction of methylene blue (i.e. MB) and Cloisite 15A (i.e. C15A) and its application in an epoxy coating. In fact, we wanted to prepare a high-performance blue pigment with both cationic dye and nano-clay features. The prepared hybrid pigment was incorporated in an epoxy formulation and its physical and chemical (i.e. corrosion resistance) properties were compared with the same epoxy formulation which had a conventional organic pigment (namely, C.I. pigment blue 15:2). Synthesized hybrid pigment and prepared epoxy coatings were characterized by using different techniques including CHNS, TGA, XRD, TEM, QUV accelerated weathering tester, spectrophotometry, pull-off adhesion, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray. Results showed that cationic exchange reaction between MB and C15A significantly improved the thermal stability of MB. DCNP represented better dispersion and more intercalated/exfoliated structure in epoxy coating in comparison with that of C15A. The color characteristics (i.e. weather stability, tinting strength and hiding power) of DCNP were found to be better than those of the conventional organic pigment. Finally, the best corrosion protection performance was observed when DCNP was incorporated into the coating formulation.
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the main monohydroxylated derivative of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) formed in liver and excreted into milk. AFM1 creates certain hygienic risks for human health. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine AFM1 level in raw milk samples in Yazd province. METHODS: This investigation was a descriptive-cross sectional study. Eighty raw milk samples were collected from four cities (Yazd, Taft, Mehriz and Sadogh) in Yazd province in winter and spring seasons. The concentration of AFM1 was determined by ELISA method. The analysis of the results was performed using ANOVA and Chi-square tests. RESULTS: All samples (100%) were contaminated with AFM1, with the concentrations ranging from 3.18 to 92.24 ng/l with a mean concentration of 22.07 ng/l. AFM1 level in 13.7% of raw milk samples was higher than the maximum tolerance limit of 50 ng/l accepted by the European Union (EU). The contamination level of AFM1 in winter samples (28.21 ng/l) was higher than spring samples (15.92 ng/l). Also, the highest and lowest contamination levels were observed in milk samples collected from Sadogh (mean 42.21 ng/l) and Yazd (12.79 ng/l) cities, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrated AFM1 was detected with a mean concentration of 22.07 ng/l in milk samples of Yazd province. Moreover, 13.7% of samples contained AFM1 at hazardous levels for human health. © 2017 American Veterinary Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Background: Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) and C. krusei are now emerging as serious hospital acquired infections in immunocompromised patients. Menthol, a terpenic compound, has been reported to have antifungal activity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of menthol in combination with itraconazole or nystatin against C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates. Methods: The effects of menthol along with itraconazole and nystatin, were evaluated by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M44-A and CLSI M27-A3 methods. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was determined for menthol plus itraconazole and nystatin combinations using the checkerboard method. Results: The mean of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of menthol, nystatin and itraconazole were 53.2, 2.30 and 1.50 μg/ml for C. glabrata isolates and 121, 1.08 and 0.38 μg/ml for C. krusei isolates, respectively. Menthol in combination with itraconazole or nystatin exhibited the synergistic effects against all species of Candida tested. FICI values for menthol plus itraconazole and nystatin combinations ranged from 0.250 to 0.561 and 0.139 to 0.623 for C. glabrata isolates, and 0.182 to 0.750 and 0.188 to 0.760 for C. krusei, respectively. Conclusions: These results support the potential use of menthol as an anticandidal agent, and it can be used complementarily with other conventional antifungal agents.
The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) essential oil on the fungal growth and Tri4 gene expression in Fusarium oxysporum (F. oxysporum) strains. The oil was obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. The chemical composition of the essential oil was obtained by gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and by retention indices. The antifungal activity was evaluated by broth microdilution assay. A quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was also developed specific for F. oxysporum on the basis of trichothecene biosynthetic gene, Tri4, which allowed discrimination from F. oxysporum. Results showed thymol (32.67%) and p-cymene (16.68%) as the main components of T. vulgaris. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values varied from 5 to 20 μg/ml with T. vulgaris (mean: 10.50 μg/ml), while minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values ranged from 8 to 30 μg/ml with mean value of 16.20 μg/ml qRT-PCR results revealed a downregulation from 4.04 to 6.27 fold of Tri4 gene expression of the fungi exposed to T. vulgaris essential oil. The results suggest that T. vulgaris oil can be considered potential alternative natural fungicide to the synthetic chemicals that are currently used to prevent and control seed-borne diseases.
Objective(s) Systemic candidiasis is an infection of Candida albicans (C. albicans) causing disseminated disease and sepsis, invariably when host defenses are compromised. We investigated the histopathological changes as well as the lymphoproliferative responses and cytokine production of splenic cells after stimulation with Concanavalin A (Con A) and Pokeweed mitogen (PWM) in mice with disseminated candidiasis. Materials and Methods Lymphoproliferative responses were stimulated in vitro with Con A (1 µg/ml) and PWM (1 µg/ml) mitogens in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 media, and the production of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in the supernatants was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The results revealed that C. albicans organisms multiplied to a greater extent in the kidneys than in the liver and spleen of infected mice. The most predominant forms of C. albicans in different parts of the kidneys were yeast mixed with hyphal forms. Infected mice had a significantly increased proliferative response when splenocytes were stimulated with PWM (2.0±0.16) and Con A (1.9±0.19) (P<0.05). PWM and Con A-stimulated production of IFN-γ significantly tended to be higher in infected mice (PWM: 68.4±14.0 pg/ml; Con A: 53.7±17.3 pg/ml) when compared to controls (P<0.05). Stimulation with PWM and Con A showed no differences in IL-4 production between infected mice and controls. Conclusion These findings demonstrated a significant increase in both cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion in supernatants of PWM and Con A- stimulated splenocyte cultures obtained from mice with disseminated candidiasis.
Introduction: About 50% of women are diagnosed with an episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) during first 25 years of their lives. Candida glabrata is considered the second most prevalent non-C. albicans species associated with VVC. In this study, we examined the antifungal effect of a medicinal plant, Allium jesdianum, as a natural therapeutic agent against fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant human vaginal C. glabrata isolates, collected from 2 groups of volunteers; healthy women and women with VVC. Methods: An aqueous-ethanolic extract of A. jesdianum was prepared by maceration method. Vaginal specimens were collected from 28 women diagnosed with VVC and eight healthy subjects. The specimens were cultured using fungal-specific media in optimum conditions. The antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates of C. glabrata to the plant extract and fluconazole was evaluated according to the standard protocols. Results: Candida glabrata was found to be the major cause of vaginal infection among 15.2% of women with VVC. We could identify the Candida spp. yeasts that colonized the vagina of 35% of healthy women while 19% of the isolated yeasts strains were detected as C. glabrata. Moreover, 7.1% of isolates obtained from VVC-patients were fluconazole resistant. The results showed the antifungal effect of A. jesdianum against all fluconazole resistant and susceptible C. glabrata vaginal isolates. The MIC90 of aqueous-ethanol (A-EtOH) extract of A. jesdianum against C. glabrata isolates from both VVC-patients and healthy women was 3 mg/mL. Conclusion: Our results showed the promising antifungal efficacy of aqueous-ethanolic extract of A. jesdianum. A. jesdianum extract might be used as an alternative choice to treat the VVC infections caused by fluconazole resistant Candida spp.





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